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Thursday, March 31, 2011

GIARDIASIS

Infection with the flagellate Gardia intestinalis known also as G.lamblia, is world-wide but commoner in the tropics.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

LICE

As well as transmitting serious disease, the body louse pediculus humanus causes dermatitis and sleeplessness through itching, especially in poor crowded communities in cold countries.

SCABIES

This disease is due to the mite Sarcoptes scabei; it is common all over the world.

Monday, March 28, 2011

JIGGERS (TUNGIASIS)

This is due to infestation with Tunga penetrans (the chigoe or jigger flea).

CAPILLARIASIS

Infection with Capillaria philippinensis suddenly appeared as an epidemic in the Philippines in the 1960s and in Thailand. Fresh water fish are intermediate hosts.

POROCEPHALOSIS

This disease is caused by invasion of the body by 'tongue worms', degenerative arthropods of which Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis and Linguatula serrata occur in man.

MYIASIS

This is an infestation of various tissues of man by the larvae of flies.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

This is most commonly found in men over 60 and may be associated with diminished androgen secretion.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Thursday, March 24, 2011

GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME

This is a variety of proliferative glomerulonephritis in which there is a circulating antibody directed against antigens of the glomerular capillary basement membrane.

FOCAL AND SEGMENTAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

This condition is characterised by proliferative and sometimes necrotic changes which occurs in segments of some but not all glomeruli.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

FAMILIAL ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS (FAP)

This condition has an incidence of 1 in 24 000 and it is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance.

MALIGNANT ASCITES

Carcinoma of the stomach and other intra-abdominal tumours, including carcinoma of the colon and ovary, may be associated with the exudation of fluid in to the peritoneal cavity.

ACUTE GASTRITIS

This is most commonly caused by the ingestion of aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and probably alcohol. It is also caused by the regurgitation of bile into the stomach, especially after gastric surgery.

Monday, March 14, 2011

PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS

Diarrhoea is quiet common in patients receiving antibiotics. In a small proportion of these the diarrhoea is due ti proliferation of C.difficile. when the normal colonic flora is altered or suppressed. Many antibiotics have been implicated.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

ISCHAEMIC COLITIS

Occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery leads to ischaemia of the left colon particularly when blood flow in the superior mesentric artery is also reduced.

ACUTE INTESTINAL FAILURE

This term describes the consequences of acute obstruction of the superior mesentric artery.

MECKEL'S DIVERTICULUM

This remnant of the vitelline duct which occurs in about 2% of teh population is found on the anti mesentric border of the ileum about 50 cm from the ileocaecal valve. It may contain gastric mucosa which may secrete acid to cause mucosal ulceration and bleeding. It may cause obstruction or inflammation and so present as an acute appendicitis.

TRAVELLER'S DIARRHOEA

An attack of diarrhoea lasting 2-5 days affects the traveller, particularly when visiting developing countries. The onset is usually abrupt and the stool is watery.

INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIA

A congenital malunion of the lymphatics causes impaired drainage of the intestinal lymphatics, and the lymph, which contains protein and fat, is discharged in to the lumen of the intestine

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHY

This term is used when there is excessive loss of protein in to the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, the loss being sufficient to cause hypoproteinaemia. Protein-losing enteropathy occurs in many gastrointestinal disorders but is most common in those which ulceration of the intestine.
Disease producing protein-losing enteropathy

WHIPPLE'S DISEASE

This is rare disease is important because it is curable. There is characteristically infiltration of the intestinal mucosa and other organs with macrophages which stain positively with periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stain.

Monday, March 7, 2011

ASBESTOSIS

Pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres is characterised by increasing exertion/breathlessness.

SILICOSIS

This disease is becoming rare as the standards of industrial hygiene improve. It is caused by the inhalation of fine free crystalline silicone dioxide dust or quartz particles.

Saturday, March 5, 2011

BYSSINOSIS

In byssinosis the initial lesion is an acute bronchioloitis associated with symptoms and signs of generalised airflow obstruction. Which tend to be worse after the weekend break, but eventually become continuous. There is no radiological abnormality. Recovery usually follows removal from exposure to the dust hazard. Smokers have e greater incidence of byssinosis than non-smokers and smoking should be discouraged in all workers at risk. In chronic disease the treatment is similar to that for patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

COAL WORKERS PNEUMOCONIOSIS

The disease follow prolonged inhalation of coal dust. The condition is subdivided in to simple pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis for clinical purposes and for certification

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

BRONCHIAL ADENOMA

This is an uncommon tumour occurring in a younger age group than carcinoma and affecting equally females and males.

ACUTE BRONCHOPNEUMONIA

This type of secondary pneumonia is invariably preceded by bronchial infection, which accounts for the widespread patchy distribution of the lesion.

ACUTE EPIGLOTTITIS

This is rare but serious disease particularly in young children usually caused by bacterial infection almost always Haemophilus influenzae.

Tuesday, March 1, 2011

TRACHEO-OESOPHAGEAL FISTULA

This may be present in new-born infants as a congenital abnormality,

TRACHEAL OBSTRUCTION

External compression by enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes containing metastatic deposits, usually from a bronchial carcinoma, is a more frequent cause of tracheal obstruction than the uncommon primary benign or malignant tumors.

ACUTE LARYNGITIS

This usually occurs either as a complication of coryza or a manifestation of one of the infections fevers, for example,measles. The laryngeal mucous membrane is swollen, congested and coated with mucus.

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