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Monday, January 31, 2011

ORAL THRUSH (MONILUASIS CANDIDIASIS)

This condition, caused by candida albicans, may occur even in healthy neonates from the infected birth passage during delivery, infected feeding equipment and prolonged antibiotic therapy.

HERPES SIMPLEX (HSV)

HSV, usually type 2 and occasionally type 1, generally infects the infant during intrapartum period following contamination by infected external genitalia.

CONGENITAL DWARFISM


CONGENITAL DWARFISM

This a child of 8 years due to congenital dwarfism..she appeared to be like a two year kid.

RECURRENT NEONATAL APNEA (APNEIC SPELLS)

This condition is characterized by intermittent apnea ( sudden cessation of respiration0 followed by cyanosis, bradycardia and limpness with unresponsiveness to stimuli.

NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS

This is poorly understood disorder of the new born in which the baby develops lethargy, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, distention of abdomen, hypothermia and apnea. Terminally, he may go into cardiovascular collapse.

Saturday, January 29, 2011

PYODERMA

Superficial skin eruptions, usually caused by staphylococcus aureus and albus, result from contaminated hands of the personnel responsible for caring the neonate. No treatment other than local application of the triple-dye is indicated.

CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

Congenital toxoplasmosis is usually occurs when the infection is acquired by an immunologically normal pregnant woman. Though fetal manifestations are severest early in gestation, the rate of transmission is least in early in gestation and highest later in gestation.

CONGENITAL RUBELLA

There are two peaks for maternal rubella to infect the fetus, causing embryopathy- first 4 weeks gestation ( risk 50%) and after 26 weeks (risk 75%) the former being responsible for most florid embryopathy.

Friday, January 28, 2011

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER(ADHD)

About 2 to 5% of the elementary school children may suffer from some demonstrable "lagging behind" in intellect and learning abilities and alteration in behaviour. The earliest recognized disability is in reading and arithmetic.

BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS

This common situational disorder, also known as infantile syncope, accounts for 4 to 13% of psychosomatic disorders in pediatric age group.

SEPTIC UMBILICUS (OMPHALITIS)

Umbilical infection in the newborn is a common problem. The etiologic factors include poor sanitary conditions and local application of unsterile dressings. E.coli and staphylococcus are the most common organisms responsible for it.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME

Moderate to high consumption of alcohol during early pregnancy may cause specific alterations in pattern of morphogenesis, resulting in major and minor malformations, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. The greater the intake of alcohol, the severer are the manifestations. Incidence in European population is 1 to 2 infants with FAS/1,000 live births. Dysmorphogenesis and hence the manifestations may vary from mild to severe.

KERNICTERUS

Hyperbilirubinemia with indirect bilirubin of 20mg% or more, irrespective of the causative factor, can produce neurological signs and symptoms in a newborn. In the case of a low birth weight infant, kernicterus may result from a lower level of bilirubin. The basal ganglia and other nuclear areas of the brain are the predominant sites of involvement.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

OPTIC NEURITIS

The term is applied to inflammation, demyelinization or degeneration of the optic nerve with impairment of its function.

OPTIC ATROPHY

This refers to irreversible degeneration of the optic disc which develops remarkable pallor with reduction in number of capillaries below 7 against the normal 10 or more,

PAPILLEDEMA (CHOKED DISK)

The term denotes the noninflammatory passive edema of the optic disk secondary to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) from such causes as intracranial space-occupying lesion (ICSOL) like tumors, obstructive hydrocephalus, intracranial hemorrhage, meningoencephalitis, toxic encephalopathy, conditions with early closure of sutures and fontanel (craniosynostosis) and pseudotumourcerebri.

LEGIONELLOSIS (Leigonnaires'disease, pontiac Fever)

This newly-recognized entity is caused by a Gram negative organism, Legionella pneumophilia, which is recovered from central air-conditioning systems, stream water, mud, etc. It infects through inhalation.
Predisposing factor include:

LUNG ABSCESS

Lung abscess is relatively common in all developing countries.
ETIOLOGY:
Single abscess: Usually due to pneumonia, tuberculosis or foreign body and, occasionally, following rupture of amebic liver abscess in to lung or super added infection of hydatid cyst.

PLEURAL EFFUSION

Pleural effusion is relatively less frequent in children; almost all cases are seen beyond 5 years of age.

ETIOLOGY:
Tuberculosis is responsible for majority of the cases followed by pyogenic infection (empyema) and, in a small proportion, thoracic lymphoreticular malignancy.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

SLEEP WALKING (somnambulism)

"Loafing" around aimlessly during sleep is, by no means, rare in childhood. According to one estimate, somnambulism occurs in about 5 to 8% of children. such children are aware of the environment during the episode but are indifferent to it. They resent all attempts to arouse them during act.

STUTTERING

Preschoolers, generally between 3 to 5 years of age, may start stammering.

TICS (Habit spasm)

The term refers to fast repetitive movements which are frequently stereotyped and are alterable at will.

TEETH GRINDING (Bruxism)

Teeth grinding among children, especially during sleep, is a common observation. In case of infants, one need not bother about it.

FOOD ALLERGY

Allergic reactions to foods e.g. animal proteins, chemical additives, etc. may manifest in the form of diarrhea, rhinitis, urticaria, asthma, anaphylaxis and the like.

common offending coloring additives used in foods and additives are tartrazine, sunset yellow, cermoisine and amaranth. These additives may cause hyperactive behaviour over and above atopy.

Monday, January 24, 2011

SCORPION STING

Scorpion injects its venom in to human skin by a single puncture.In majority of the instances,manifestations are local and include paifull swelling and bleeding.As in the case of bee sting,these usually subside in some hours to a day or so.In others,

INFANTILE AUTISM

AUTISM:

Autism is a sort of poorly understood psychosis on which the child is highly withdrawn and seemingly living in an isolated world of his own.

PICA (Geophagia)

PICA: Refers to eating of substances other than food

example:earth,dust,clay,sand,flakes of paints,plaster from wall,fabrics ice (pagophagia), etc.

it is frequent in first 4 years of life but may be seen in grown-ups as well.

Saturday, January 22, 2011

ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND ITS FEW TYPES

ABDOMINAL SURGICAL INCISIONS:

The Abdominal wall extends from Xiphisternum to the inguinal ligament.

Incision: A surgical wound made on the soft parts made with a knife.

DVT

DEFINITION:A blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein in the thigh or leg. The clot can break off as an embolus and make its way to the lung, where it can cause respiratory distress and respiratory failure. Deep vein thrombosis is sometimes called the "economy-class syndrome." Even in young, healthy travelers, long stretches of time spent immobilized in the cramped seat of
an aircraft with very low humidity sets the stage for formation of a blood clot in the leg.

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