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Friday, November 4, 2011

SAVING OUR BLOOD FOR FUTURE

Is it possible for anyone to donate blood for him/herself in needful situation of blood? yes it is possible..recently i have read in magazine which I am sharing to you all readers.

Monday, May 2, 2011

MERCURY POISONING

The major source of mercury is the natural degassing of the earth's crust.

BUILDING SICKNESS SYNDROME

This benign syndrome occurs in workers in modern air conditioned offices.

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

Poly chlorinated biphenyls are (PCBs) are liquid, first manufactured in the 1930s, Which have become widely distributed in the environment; particularly in water, fish and fish-eating birds; and in soils near sources of contamination.

FLUROSIS

Skeletal flurosis occurs endemically in some tropical and sub-tropical areas with high fluoride concentrations in soil and water.

Monday, April 25, 2011

GILBERT'S SYNDROME

This common benign condition is usually first recognized in adolescents or young adults. It is more common in men and occurs in about 5% of the population.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

CHRONIC PERSISTENT HEPATITIS (CPH)

Chronic persistent hepatitis is a mild illness comprising fatigue, poor appetite, fatty food intolerance and upper abdominal discomfort, especially over the liver.

Saturday, April 16, 2011

INFLUENZA

Influenza is a specific acute illness caused by a group of myxoviruses. It occurs in epidemics, and occasionally pandemics, often explosive in nature.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

CHOLEDOCHOLITHIAISIS

Stones in the common bile duct occur in 10-155 of patients with gallstones.

POSTCHOLECYSTECTOMY SYNDROME

Symptoms following cholecystectomy occur in 12-68% of patients depending on how thecondition is defined, how actively symptoms are sought, and the indications for cholecystectomy.

Monday, April 11, 2011

ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

This is experienced by people who go up too high too quickly; some suffer at 2500m, other reach 5500m without trouble. The cause of the syndrome is unknown.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

PULMONARY OVERINFLATION

This occurs in scuba divers breathing compressed air.

SHALLOW WATER BLACKOUT

Swimmers and free divers (snorkling without compressed air) may hyperventilate before submerging in order to drive off carbon di oxide and so reduce the stimulus to breathe. The raised ambient pressure maintains a high diver is eventually forced to surface. The resulting cerebral hypoxia is made worse by cerebral vaso construction induced by the low partial pressure of carbon di oxide, and can result in unconsciousness and drowning

MIDDLE EAR 'SQUEEZE'

Middle ear 'squeeze' is the commonest injury of divers. Sinus squeeze is less common.

CHRONIC MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

This is due to alveolar hypo ventilation and chronic hypoxia brought about by inappropriate polycythaemia,

Thursday, April 7, 2011

ANISAKIASIS (HERRING WORM DISEASE)

Anisarkis marina parasites herrings and other marine animals. Human infections occur in Holland and Japan from the consumption of raw herrings.
An eosinophilic granuloma forms in the intestine and may give rise to colic, fever and intestinal obstruction.
An indirect haemagglutination test has been used for diagnosis.
Surgery may be required.

GNATHOSTOMIASIS

Gnasthostoma is a nematode of digs and cats in Bangladesh, South East Asia and Far EAST.

TRICHNELLA SPIRALIS

This parasite of rats and pigs is transmitted to man by eating partially cooked infected pork

ANGIOSTRONGYLUS

Angiostrongylus, a nematode affecting the lungs of rodents, has a larval stage in molluscus and fresh water shrimps. In the Far East and the Pacific, where infected crustacea are eaten or infected slugs on vegetables are inadvertently swallowed, the larvae may cause a serious eosinophilic meningitis and immature worms may be found in CSF, Thiabendazole is effective but patients often recover spontaneously.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

ANCYLOSTOMA BRASILIENSE AND ANCYLOSTOMA CANINUM

These are intestinal parasites of dogs with a similar life cycle to A.duodenale, but in man they cause a creeping. eruption or cutaneous larva migrans. The larva burrows between the corium and stratum granulosum and progresses irregularly at about 1cm in 24 hours.

Clinical features
The skin at the advancing end is erythematous and may vesiculate while that over the older part of the burrow is discoloured and scaly. Itching may be intense. The larva may remain active for months.

Management
Treatment is tropical. One 0.5 g tablet of thiabendazole is ground in to 5g petroleum jelly rubbed into affected site twice daily for a few days.

TOXOCARA CANIS

This is common intestinal worms of dogs. The ova are passed in the animal's faeces.

ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (THREADWORM)

This helminth is common throughout the world, It affects children especially.

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

CANCRUM ORIS

Cancrum oris is rare except in poorly nourished children in the tropics.

MELIOIDOSIS

Meliodosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a micro organism closely related to P.mallei, the cause of glanders, which is a rare disease of horses and rarely their grooms.

TULARAEMIA

Tularaemia is an infection due to Francisella tularensis transmitted to mammals and birds by the bites of infected blood-sucking flies and ticks.

SCARLET FEVER

Although scarlet fever is at present a mild disease, it may not necessarily remain so, as fluctuations in its severity have been record for the past 300 years.

ERYSIPELAS

Erysipelas is an acute streptococcal infection of the skin, commoner in the elderly.

Sunday, April 3, 2011

DERMATOPHYTES

This large group of fungi infect keratinised tissues and are responsible for ringworm of the body and scalp,

Saturday, April 2, 2011

TICK-BORNE TYPHUS FEVERS (Rocky mountain spotted fever)

The casual organism, R.rickettsii is transmitted by the bite of hard (Ixodid) ticks which carry the infection to rodents and dogs and on occasion to man. It is widely distributed througout the world but now decreasing in Western and South-eastern states of the USA and also in South America.

Friday, April 1, 2011

COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

This is caused by Coccidioides immitis and found in Southern United States, and Central and South America. The disease is acquired by inhalation.

Thursday, March 31, 2011

GIARDIASIS

Infection with the flagellate Gardia intestinalis known also as G.lamblia, is world-wide but commoner in the tropics.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

LICE

As well as transmitting serious disease, the body louse pediculus humanus causes dermatitis and sleeplessness through itching, especially in poor crowded communities in cold countries.

SCABIES

This disease is due to the mite Sarcoptes scabei; it is common all over the world.

Monday, March 28, 2011

JIGGERS (TUNGIASIS)

This is due to infestation with Tunga penetrans (the chigoe or jigger flea).

CAPILLARIASIS

Infection with Capillaria philippinensis suddenly appeared as an epidemic in the Philippines in the 1960s and in Thailand. Fresh water fish are intermediate hosts.

POROCEPHALOSIS

This disease is caused by invasion of the body by 'tongue worms', degenerative arthropods of which Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis and Linguatula serrata occur in man.

MYIASIS

This is an infestation of various tissues of man by the larvae of flies.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

This is most commonly found in men over 60 and may be associated with diminished androgen secretion.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Thursday, March 24, 2011

GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME

This is a variety of proliferative glomerulonephritis in which there is a circulating antibody directed against antigens of the glomerular capillary basement membrane.

FOCAL AND SEGMENTAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

This condition is characterised by proliferative and sometimes necrotic changes which occurs in segments of some but not all glomeruli.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

FAMILIAL ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS (FAP)

This condition has an incidence of 1 in 24 000 and it is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance.

MALIGNANT ASCITES

Carcinoma of the stomach and other intra-abdominal tumours, including carcinoma of the colon and ovary, may be associated with the exudation of fluid in to the peritoneal cavity.

ACUTE GASTRITIS

This is most commonly caused by the ingestion of aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and probably alcohol. It is also caused by the regurgitation of bile into the stomach, especially after gastric surgery.

Monday, March 14, 2011

PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS

Diarrhoea is quiet common in patients receiving antibiotics. In a small proportion of these the diarrhoea is due ti proliferation of C.difficile. when the normal colonic flora is altered or suppressed. Many antibiotics have been implicated.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

ISCHAEMIC COLITIS

Occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery leads to ischaemia of the left colon particularly when blood flow in the superior mesentric artery is also reduced.

ACUTE INTESTINAL FAILURE

This term describes the consequences of acute obstruction of the superior mesentric artery.

MECKEL'S DIVERTICULUM

This remnant of the vitelline duct which occurs in about 2% of teh population is found on the anti mesentric border of the ileum about 50 cm from the ileocaecal valve. It may contain gastric mucosa which may secrete acid to cause mucosal ulceration and bleeding. It may cause obstruction or inflammation and so present as an acute appendicitis.

TRAVELLER'S DIARRHOEA

An attack of diarrhoea lasting 2-5 days affects the traveller, particularly when visiting developing countries. The onset is usually abrupt and the stool is watery.

INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIA

A congenital malunion of the lymphatics causes impaired drainage of the intestinal lymphatics, and the lymph, which contains protein and fat, is discharged in to the lumen of the intestine

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHY

This term is used when there is excessive loss of protein in to the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, the loss being sufficient to cause hypoproteinaemia. Protein-losing enteropathy occurs in many gastrointestinal disorders but is most common in those which ulceration of the intestine.
Disease producing protein-losing enteropathy

WHIPPLE'S DISEASE

This is rare disease is important because it is curable. There is characteristically infiltration of the intestinal mucosa and other organs with macrophages which stain positively with periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stain.

Monday, March 7, 2011

ASBESTOSIS

Pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres is characterised by increasing exertion/breathlessness.

SILICOSIS

This disease is becoming rare as the standards of industrial hygiene improve. It is caused by the inhalation of fine free crystalline silicone dioxide dust or quartz particles.

Saturday, March 5, 2011

BYSSINOSIS

In byssinosis the initial lesion is an acute bronchioloitis associated with symptoms and signs of generalised airflow obstruction. Which tend to be worse after the weekend break, but eventually become continuous. There is no radiological abnormality. Recovery usually follows removal from exposure to the dust hazard. Smokers have e greater incidence of byssinosis than non-smokers and smoking should be discouraged in all workers at risk. In chronic disease the treatment is similar to that for patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

COAL WORKERS PNEUMOCONIOSIS

The disease follow prolonged inhalation of coal dust. The condition is subdivided in to simple pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis for clinical purposes and for certification

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

BRONCHIAL ADENOMA

This is an uncommon tumour occurring in a younger age group than carcinoma and affecting equally females and males.

ACUTE BRONCHOPNEUMONIA

This type of secondary pneumonia is invariably preceded by bronchial infection, which accounts for the widespread patchy distribution of the lesion.

ACUTE EPIGLOTTITIS

This is rare but serious disease particularly in young children usually caused by bacterial infection almost always Haemophilus influenzae.

Tuesday, March 1, 2011

TRACHEO-OESOPHAGEAL FISTULA

This may be present in new-born infants as a congenital abnormality,

TRACHEAL OBSTRUCTION

External compression by enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes containing metastatic deposits, usually from a bronchial carcinoma, is a more frequent cause of tracheal obstruction than the uncommon primary benign or malignant tumors.

ACUTE LARYNGITIS

This usually occurs either as a complication of coryza or a manifestation of one of the infections fevers, for example,measles. The laryngeal mucous membrane is swollen, congested and coated with mucus.

Monday, February 28, 2011

ACUTE CORYZA (COMMON COLD)

The onset is usually sudden with a burning and tickling sensation in the nose accompanied by sneezing. The throat often feels dry and sore, the head feels 'stuffed' and there is profuse watery nasal discharge. These symptoms last for one or two days, after which, with secondary infection,

Saturday, February 26, 2011

AORTIC ANEURYSM

An aortic  aneurysm is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic wall. Aneurysm may be due to atheromatous disease, connective tissue disease, or syphilis, Dissecting aneurysm has a different pathology and is considered separately. Atheromatous aortic aneurysm is the commonest form.

RAYNAUD'S PHENOMENON

This is an intense vasospasm of peripheral arteries. On exposure to cold the fingers (and less commonly the toes) becomes initially very pale from vasoconstriction.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME

This is pulmonary hypertension complicating an initial left-to-right shunt. Progressive changes take place in the pulmonary vessels, and once established the increased resistance is irreversible.

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT

Atrial septal defect is more common in female. Since the normal right ventricle is much more complaint than the left, a large volume of blood shunts through the defect from the left to right atrium and then to the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries.

Sunday, February 20, 2011

COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

Narrowing of the aorta most commonly occurs in the region where the ductus arteriosus joints the aorta, i.e. just below the origin of the left subclavian artey. The condition is more common in males, and is sometimes associated with other abnormalities, Of which the most frequent is a bicuspid aortic valve.

CHRONIC PERICARDIAL CONSTRICTION

Tuberculosis is a frequent cause. some cases accompany rheumatoid arthritis and other follow a haemopericardium or, rarely, acute pericarditis. Often the cause is obscure. A slowly progressive fibrosis of the pericardium develops and constricts the movement of the heart,so that it cannot expand in diastole.

Saturday, February 19, 2011

PULMONARY STENOSIS

Virtually always congenital. It may be isolated or associated with other abnormalities such as fallot's tetralogy.

Friday, February 18, 2011

TRICUSPID REGURGITATION

Tricuspid regurgitation is common. The most frequent causes are:
  • Right ventricular dilatation secondary to pulmonary hypertension
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Endocarditis, particularly in intravenous drug abusers
  • Right ventricular infarction

TRICUSPID STENOSIS

Tricuspid stenosis is usually rheumatic in origin, and nearly always occurs in association with mitral and aortic valve disease. Isolated rheumatic tricuspid stenosis is very rare. Tricuspid valve disease may also be associated with the carcinoid syndrome.

Thursday, February 17, 2011

CLONAL FACIAL (HEMIFACIAL) SPASM

This disorder presents mostly after middle age.

Clinical features
Symptoms usually start with intermittent twitching around the aye. Over the course of months or years, clonic twitches increase in frequency and severity so that the eye may close for a few seconds at a time, and gradually the movements begin to affect the lower face.

BULBAR AND PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY

Lesions of cranial nerves IX, X, XI AND XII often occur together, frequently because of vascular disease affecting the medulla. The resultant palatal, pharyngeal and tongue weakness causing dysphonia, dysphagia and dysarthria is known as 'bulbar palsy'. Bilateral supra nuclear lesions affecting the pyramidal tracts (e.g. due to diffuse vascular disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis) cause loss of voluntary palatal and pharyngeal movements, but the gag reflex is preserved. The tongue is small (spastic) and shows poor rapid movement, this resulting in indistinct speech (spastic dysarthria). The jaw jerk is brisk. This state is known as 'pseudobulbar palsy'.

SQUINT (STRABISMUS)

Squint occurs when the two eyes fail to move in a coordinated fashion. Diplopia results unless one has very poor vision or the defect has been of long-standing since childhood,

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

MENIERE'S DISEASE

This is a disorder of the inner ear in which there is excessive pressure and dilatation of the endolymphatic system. This results in damage to both the vestibular and cochlear sense organs. The cause is unknown, although there is some overlap with other functional vasospastic disorders such as migraine.

VESTIBULAR NEURONITIS

This is common disorder affecting mainly young adults. The aetiology is presumed to be due to viral infection, and occasionally occurs in small epidemics.

Monday, February 14, 2011

CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS (CTEV)

Club foot is a congenital contracture of he joints of the foot. The main clinical signs of congenital talipes equinovarus are

Sunday, February 13, 2011

ARTHROGRYPOSIS MULTIPLEX CONGENITA

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a non-progressive disorder of congenital origin; characterised by marked stiffness and contracture of joints affecting the limbs and trunk.

OSTEOARTHRITIS

Osteoarthritis is characterized by thinning and destruction of the hyaline cartilage of joints, followed by remodelling of underlying bony surfaces. It is essentially noninflammatory.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

VARICOSE VEINS

Incompetence of valves and reflux of blood from the deep venous system subjects the superficial veins to excessive pressure not only when standing or sitting at rest but also during exercise.

LYMPHEDEMA

Swelling of an extremity or other body part secondary to a malformation or obstruction of lymphatic channels.

Friday, February 11, 2011

PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS

Psoriasis is a relatively common skin condition. A number of HLA antigens are associated with psoriasis. When psoriatic patients carry the antigen HLA-B27, there is a high risk to develop psoriatic spondylitis. When they are positive for the antigen HLA DR4 they are more liable to develop an arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis a common complication occurring in 5% of psoriatics.

REITER'S SYNDROME

It is a seronegative arthritis consisting of a traid of
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Nonspecific urethritis and
  • Conjunctivitis
Two types are recognised.

  • Following a gastrointestinal infection (dysentery) with Yersinia, Salmonella or Shigella.
  • Following nonspecific urethritis.

Thursday, February 10, 2011

MONGOLISM (DOWN'S SYNDROME)

Down's syndrome is one of the common causes of mental subnormality in children; occurring in 1.3 out of every thousand live births. This was described by Dr. John Langdon Down in 1866.

MICROCEPHALY

Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference that measures less than 3 standard deviation below the measure for age and sex.

CONGENITAL TORTICOLLIS

Congenital torticollis is an asymmetric deformity of the neck resulting from unilateral contracture of sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

FOOT DROP

Foot drop results from damage to the common peroneal nerve trunk and the consequent paralysis of the anterior and lateral group of leg muscles which dorsiflex and evert the foot respectively.

RADIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

The wrist hangs loosely in flexion (wrist drop) and the metacarpophalangeal joints are also flexed. The hand is pronated.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

MEDIAN NERVE PARALYSIS

The median nerve may be injure:
  • In the axilla, or above the elbow, although this is rare.
  • At the elbow, where it may be involved in a fracture, though far less frequently than the ulnar nerve.
  • Low in the forearm, or at the wrist, the most common site of injury, since the nerve is in a superficial position.

ULNAR NERVE PARALYSIS

The ulnar nerve may be injured at the elbow, where it may be torn or lacerated when a fracture or dislocation takes place, later compressed by callus or scar tissue, or at the wrist, generally by direct injuries, such as cuts, or wounds. It may also be damaged in any part of its course by wounds or tumors.

ERB'S PLASY

The causes of Erb's palsy are:

1.Undue strectching of the head from the shoulder as in a manoeuvre to deliver the baby in breech presentation (birth injury).
2.In an adult it may follow a blow or fall on shoulder.

Monday, February 7, 2011

HALLUX RIGIDUS

Hallux rigidus occurs as two distinct varieties.

1. The adolescent type is due to synovitis of the metatarsophalangeal joint following injury,

CALCANEAN SPUR

Calcanean spur is a result of plantar fascitis following foot strain, Which is perhaps aggravated by some focus of infection.

SPRENGEL'S SHOULDER

Congenital elevation of the shoulder is a condition in which the scapula is smaller than normal and situated at a higher level. The inferior angle is rotated inwards, and abduction is restricted.

CONGENITAL ABSENCE OF THE RADIUS

Congenital absence of the radius occasionally occurs, in which case growth of the ulna pushes the hand to the radial side.

MADELUNG'S DEFROMITY ( MANUS VALGA)

Manus valga is a radial displacement of the carpus with abnormal prominence of the lower end of ulna. It is a term for a deformity and comprises many etiological conditions.

CUBITUS VALGUS

Normally the forearm lies in a slightly abducted position in relation to the axis of the humerus ( the 'carrying angle'). This varies from about 10 degrees in men to 15 degrees in women ( because of the greater width of the female pelvis in relation to the shoulders).

Saturday, February 5, 2011

CHOLECYSTECTOMY

The gall bladder is removed in cases of chronic cholecystitis, with or without the presence of gallstones. Disease of the gall bladder is common in women than in men.

TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS (Bourneville disease)

Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple systems.

NEUROFIBROMATOSIS (Von Reckilinghausen disease)

Neurofibromatosis, another autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder, is characterized by cafe-au-lait spots (irregular hyper pigmented areas: more than 6 spots, each measuring at least 1.5 cm.),

INCONTINENTIA PIGMENTI ( Bloch-Sulzberger disease)

Incontinentia pigmenti, an X-linked dominant disorder, lethal to the males, is characterized by multi system involvement. CNS manifestations include seizures, developmental delay, microcephaly, spasticity and paralysis.

LINEAR NEVUS SYNDROME

Linear nevus syndrome, a sporadic condition is characterized by a facial nevus over middle of and forehead and nose and neurodevelopmental defects.

Friday, February 4, 2011

ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA

Ataxia telangiectasia, a defect of embryogenesis, is characterized by cerebeller ataxia, ocular and cutaneous telangiectasia, chronic sinopulmonary infection, endocrinal abnormalities and immunodeficiency of B and T cell ( most frequently IgA and IgE deficiency, singly or together).

VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE

Von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by visual loss and manifestations related to cerebellar or spinal cord dysfunction. The basic lesion is angioma of retina, usually accompanied by hemangioblastoma of cerebellum, hemangioma of spinal cord, hypernephroma and cystadenomas of viscera may occur but are less frequent. Paradoxically, skin is not involved. This condition appears at adolescence or later.

STURGE-WEBER DISEASE

Sturge-weber disease, a nonfamilial disorder results from a unilateral congenital capillary hemangioma invoving face and neck (facial nevus involving usually opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) mucous memberane, meninges and choroid plexus.

Neurologic manifestations include seizures, mental defect, hemiparesis, or hemianopsia, rarely subarachnoid hemorrhage, glaucoma, and railroad track pattern of calcification on X-ray skull.

DEMYELINATING DISEASE

Demyelinating disease are characterized by breakdown of myelin in CNS only and are supposed to be secondary to an autoimmune or viral etiology. Three types are known:

FRIEDREICH ATAXIA

Friedreich atxia, the commonest of the spinocerebellar degenerations, usually has autosomal recessive inheritance.

Thursday, February 3, 2011

HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION (WILSON DISEASE)

Hepatolenticular degeneration, an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, is characterized by triad of cirrhosis, neurologic manifestations and Kayser-Fleischer rings. Hepatomegaly, due to excessive accumulation of copper, is the earliest manifestation.

METACHROMATIC LEUKODYSTROPHY

Metachromatic leukodystrophy, the commonest of the leukodystrophies, is an autososmal disorders due to deficiency of aryl sulfatase A in brain and other tissue.

KINKY HAIR (MENKES) DISEASE

Kinky hair disease, a sex- linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, is characterized by poor weight gain, proneness to infection and , latter, hair becoming sparse and brittle, and myoclonic seizures.

Wednesday, February 2, 2011

RETT SYNDROME

Rett syndrome, occurring exclusively in females, is characterized by regression of motor milestones and language after 1 year of age, ataxic gait or fine tremors of hands,

SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPAHILITIS(SSPE)

SSPE manifests, on an average, 7 years after the primary infection with measles. The peak incidence occurs at 7 to 15 years though it has been reported in the subjects aged 6 months to 30 years.

CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS

This uncommon condition occurs as a complication of a septic focus over face, orbit, nose, teeth etc. The infection spreads from facial veins to ophthalmic vein and finally to the cavernous sinus. Intracranial extension may be accompanied by meningitis.

SPASMUS NUTANS

This disorder of unknown etiology is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of head in the form of intermittent head nodding, usually in the lateral or horizontal direction, together with intermittent rapid pendular nystagmus.

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

SUBDURAL EFFUSION IN PEDIATRICS

Subdural effusion usually occurs in infants as a complication of pyogenic meningitis. The usual site is frontal or parietal region.

Monday, January 31, 2011

ORAL THRUSH (MONILUASIS CANDIDIASIS)

This condition, caused by candida albicans, may occur even in healthy neonates from the infected birth passage during delivery, infected feeding equipment and prolonged antibiotic therapy.

HERPES SIMPLEX (HSV)

HSV, usually type 2 and occasionally type 1, generally infects the infant during intrapartum period following contamination by infected external genitalia.

CONGENITAL DWARFISM


CONGENITAL DWARFISM

This a child of 8 years due to congenital dwarfism..she appeared to be like a two year kid.

RECURRENT NEONATAL APNEA (APNEIC SPELLS)

This condition is characterized by intermittent apnea ( sudden cessation of respiration0 followed by cyanosis, bradycardia and limpness with unresponsiveness to stimuli.

NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS

This is poorly understood disorder of the new born in which the baby develops lethargy, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, distention of abdomen, hypothermia and apnea. Terminally, he may go into cardiovascular collapse.

Saturday, January 29, 2011

PYODERMA

Superficial skin eruptions, usually caused by staphylococcus aureus and albus, result from contaminated hands of the personnel responsible for caring the neonate. No treatment other than local application of the triple-dye is indicated.

CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

Congenital toxoplasmosis is usually occurs when the infection is acquired by an immunologically normal pregnant woman. Though fetal manifestations are severest early in gestation, the rate of transmission is least in early in gestation and highest later in gestation.

CONGENITAL RUBELLA

There are two peaks for maternal rubella to infect the fetus, causing embryopathy- first 4 weeks gestation ( risk 50%) and after 26 weeks (risk 75%) the former being responsible for most florid embryopathy.

Friday, January 28, 2011

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER(ADHD)

About 2 to 5% of the elementary school children may suffer from some demonstrable "lagging behind" in intellect and learning abilities and alteration in behaviour. The earliest recognized disability is in reading and arithmetic.

BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS

This common situational disorder, also known as infantile syncope, accounts for 4 to 13% of psychosomatic disorders in pediatric age group.

SEPTIC UMBILICUS (OMPHALITIS)

Umbilical infection in the newborn is a common problem. The etiologic factors include poor sanitary conditions and local application of unsterile dressings. E.coli and staphylococcus are the most common organisms responsible for it.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME

Moderate to high consumption of alcohol during early pregnancy may cause specific alterations in pattern of morphogenesis, resulting in major and minor malformations, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. The greater the intake of alcohol, the severer are the manifestations. Incidence in European population is 1 to 2 infants with FAS/1,000 live births. Dysmorphogenesis and hence the manifestations may vary from mild to severe.

KERNICTERUS

Hyperbilirubinemia with indirect bilirubin of 20mg% or more, irrespective of the causative factor, can produce neurological signs and symptoms in a newborn. In the case of a low birth weight infant, kernicterus may result from a lower level of bilirubin. The basal ganglia and other nuclear areas of the brain are the predominant sites of involvement.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

OPTIC NEURITIS

The term is applied to inflammation, demyelinization or degeneration of the optic nerve with impairment of its function.

OPTIC ATROPHY

This refers to irreversible degeneration of the optic disc which develops remarkable pallor with reduction in number of capillaries below 7 against the normal 10 or more,

PAPILLEDEMA (CHOKED DISK)

The term denotes the noninflammatory passive edema of the optic disk secondary to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) from such causes as intracranial space-occupying lesion (ICSOL) like tumors, obstructive hydrocephalus, intracranial hemorrhage, meningoencephalitis, toxic encephalopathy, conditions with early closure of sutures and fontanel (craniosynostosis) and pseudotumourcerebri.

LEGIONELLOSIS (Leigonnaires'disease, pontiac Fever)

This newly-recognized entity is caused by a Gram negative organism, Legionella pneumophilia, which is recovered from central air-conditioning systems, stream water, mud, etc. It infects through inhalation.
Predisposing factor include:

LUNG ABSCESS

Lung abscess is relatively common in all developing countries.
ETIOLOGY:
Single abscess: Usually due to pneumonia, tuberculosis or foreign body and, occasionally, following rupture of amebic liver abscess in to lung or super added infection of hydatid cyst.

PLEURAL EFFUSION

Pleural effusion is relatively less frequent in children; almost all cases are seen beyond 5 years of age.

ETIOLOGY:
Tuberculosis is responsible for majority of the cases followed by pyogenic infection (empyema) and, in a small proportion, thoracic lymphoreticular malignancy.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

SLEEP WALKING (somnambulism)

"Loafing" around aimlessly during sleep is, by no means, rare in childhood. According to one estimate, somnambulism occurs in about 5 to 8% of children. such children are aware of the environment during the episode but are indifferent to it. They resent all attempts to arouse them during act.

STUTTERING

Preschoolers, generally between 3 to 5 years of age, may start stammering.

TICS (Habit spasm)

The term refers to fast repetitive movements which are frequently stereotyped and are alterable at will.

TEETH GRINDING (Bruxism)

Teeth grinding among children, especially during sleep, is a common observation. In case of infants, one need not bother about it.

FOOD ALLERGY

Allergic reactions to foods e.g. animal proteins, chemical additives, etc. may manifest in the form of diarrhea, rhinitis, urticaria, asthma, anaphylaxis and the like.

common offending coloring additives used in foods and additives are tartrazine, sunset yellow, cermoisine and amaranth. These additives may cause hyperactive behaviour over and above atopy.

Monday, January 24, 2011

SCORPION STING

Scorpion injects its venom in to human skin by a single puncture.In majority of the instances,manifestations are local and include paifull swelling and bleeding.As in the case of bee sting,these usually subside in some hours to a day or so.In others,

INFANTILE AUTISM

AUTISM:

Autism is a sort of poorly understood psychosis on which the child is highly withdrawn and seemingly living in an isolated world of his own.

PICA (Geophagia)

PICA: Refers to eating of substances other than food

example:earth,dust,clay,sand,flakes of paints,plaster from wall,fabrics ice (pagophagia), etc.

it is frequent in first 4 years of life but may be seen in grown-ups as well.

Saturday, January 22, 2011

ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND ITS FEW TYPES

ABDOMINAL SURGICAL INCISIONS:

The Abdominal wall extends from Xiphisternum to the inguinal ligament.

Incision: A surgical wound made on the soft parts made with a knife.

DVT

DEFINITION:A blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein in the thigh or leg. The clot can break off as an embolus and make its way to the lung, where it can cause respiratory distress and respiratory failure. Deep vein thrombosis is sometimes called the "economy-class syndrome." Even in young, healthy travelers, long stretches of time spent immobilized in the cramped seat of
an aircraft with very low humidity sets the stage for formation of a blood clot in the leg.

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